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Appliances – Any device, attached to the teeth or removable, designed to move the teeth, change the position of the jaw, or hold the teeth in their finished positions after braces are removed.

Archwire – The metal wire that is attached to the brackets and used to move the teeth.

Band – The metal ring that is cemented to a tooth for strength and anchorage.

Braces – A word commonly used to describe a fixed orthodontic appliance, usually comprised of brackets, bands and wires.  The diagram below illustrates and names each part of a typical set of braces.

A. Ligature
The archwire is held to each bracket with a ligature, which can be either a tiny elastic or a twisted wire.

B. Archwire
The archwire is tied to all of the brackets and creates force to move teeth into proper alignment.

C. Brackets
Brackets are connected to the bands, or directly bonded on the teeth, and hold the archwire in place.

D. Metal Band
The band is the cemented ring of metal which wraps around the tooth.

E. Bracket Hooks
The bracket or band extensions that are used for the attachment of rubber bands.

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Bracket – The small metal, ceramic, or plastic attachment bonded to each tooth with a tooth-colored adhesive.  The bracket has a slot that the archwire fits into.

Bruxism – Grinding the teeth, usually during sleeping. Bruxism can cause abnormal tooth wear and may lead to pain in the jaw joints.

Buccal – The cheek side of the back teeth in both arches or jaws.

Buccal Tube – A small metal part of the bracket welded to the cheek side of the molar band.  The tube may hold an archwire, lip bumper, headgear facebow or other appliances an orthodontist may use to move the teeth.

Cephalometric Radiograph – A lateral (side view) x-ray of the head.

Chain – A stretchable series of elastic o-rings connected together and placed around each bracket to hold the archwire in place and move the teeth.

Class I Malocclusion – A malocclusion with the proper molar relationship and teeth that are crowded together, spaced apart, an overbite, an openbite, a posterior crossbite or an anterior crossbite.

Class II Malocclusion – A malocclusion with the upper front teeth protruding or due to the lower teeth and/or jaw positioned back relative to the upper teeth and/or jaw.

Class III Malocclusion – A malocclusion with the lower front teeth protruding or due to the lower teeth and/or jaw positioned ahead relative to the upper teeth and/or jaw.

Closed Bite/Deep Bite – Also known as deep overbite, this occurs when the upper front teeth overlap the bottom front teeth an excessive amount.

Comprehensive Treatment – Complete orthodontic treatment performed to correct a malocclusion.

Congenitally Missing Teeth – A genetic occurrence in which the expected number of permanent teeth do not develop.

Crossbite – Upper posterior (back) teeth are in crossbite if they erupt and function inside or outside of the arch in the lower posterior teeth.  Lower anterior (front) teeth are in crossbite if they erupt and function in front of the upper anterior teeth.  A crossbite can be individual teeth or groups of teeth.

Diagnostic Records – The material and information that the orthodontist needs to properly diagnose and plan a patient’s treatment.  Diagnostic records may include a thorough patient health history, a visual examination of the teeth and supporting structures, plaster models of the teeth, a wax bite registration, extraoral and intraoral photographs, a panoramic and a cephalometric radiograph.

Ectopic Eruption – Term used to describe a tooth or teeth that erupt in an abnormal position.

Eruption – The process by which teeth enter into the mouth.

Extraction – The removal of a tooth.

Elastics – Rubber bands.  During certain stages of treatment, small elastics or rubber bands are worn to provide individual tooth movement or jaw alignment.

Facebow – A wire appliance used with a nightbrace, or headgear.  Primarily used to move the upper first molars back, creating room for crowded or protrusive front teeth.  The facebow has an internal wire bow and an external wire bow.  The internal bow attaches to the buccal tube on the upper molar bands inside the mouth and the outer bow attaches to the breakaway safety strap of the nightbrace.

Fiberotomy – A surgical procedure designed to sever fibers of attachment around the  tooth, usually performed to reduce the potential for relapse or post-orthodontic treatment tooth movement.

Fixed Appliances – An orthodontic appliance that is bonded or cemented to the teeth and cannot be or should not be removed by the patient.

Flossing – An important part of daily home dental care.  Flossing removes plaque and food debris from between the teeth, brackets and wires.  Flossing keeps teeth and gums clean and healthy during orthodontictreatment.

Frenectomy – The surgical removal or repositioning of the frenum, the lip and tongue attachment located between the upper and lower front teeth.  A large frenum attachment can cause spacing between top front teeth or cause the tongue to be tied.

Functional Appliances – Appliances that utilize the muscle action produced when speaking, eating and swallowing to produce force to move the teeth and align the jaws.   They are also known as orthopedic appliances with names such as orthopedic corrector, activator, bionator, Frankel, Herbst or twin block appliances.

Gingiva – Soft tissue around the teeth, also known as the gums.

Gummy Smile – Showing an excessive amount of gingival (gum) tissue above the front teeth when smiling.

Headgear – An appliance worn outside of the mouth to provide traction for growth modification and tooth movement.

Impaction – A tooth that does not erupt into the mouth or only erupts partially is considered impacted.

Interceptive Treatment – Orthodontic treatment performed to intercept a developing problem.  Usually performed on younger patients that have a mixture of primary (baby) teeth and permanent teeth.

Interproximal Reduction – Removal of a small amount of enamel from between the teeth to reduce their width.  Also known as reproximation, slenderizing, stripping, enamel reduction or selective reduction.

Labial – The surface of the teeth in both arches that faces the lips.

Ligating Modules – A small elastic o-ring, shaped like a donut, used to hold the archwire in the bracket.

Lingual – The tongue side of the teeth in both arches.

Lip Incompetence – The inability to close the lips together at rest, usually due to protrusive front teeth or excessively long faces.

 

Malocclusion – The term used in orthodontics to describe teeth that do not fit together properly.  From Latin, the term means “bad bite.

Mandible – Lower jaw.

Maxilla – Upper jaw.

Mixed Dentition – The dental developmental stage in children (approximately ages 6-12) when they have a mix of primary (baby) and permanent teeth.

Mouthguard – A removable device used to protect the teeth and mouth from injury caused by sporting activities.  The use of a mouthguard is especially important for orthodontic patients.

Nightguard – A removable appliance worn at night to help an individual minimize the damage or wear while clenching or grinding teeth during sleep.

Open Bite – A malocclusion in which teeth do not make contact with each other.   With an anterior open bite, the front teeth do not touch when the back teeth are closed together.  With a posterior open bite, the back teeth do not touch when the front teeth are closed together.

Orthopedic Appliance – A removable functional appliance designed to guide the growth of the jaws and face.

Panoramic Radiograph – An x-ray that shows all the teeth and both jaws on one film.

Palatal Expander – A fixed or removable device used to make the upper jaw wider.

Periodontal – Refers to the hard and soft tissue, or supporting structures, around the teeth.

Plaque – Plaque is a colorless, sticky film of bacteria, food particles and saliva that constantly forms in the mouth.  Plaque combines with sugars to form an acid that endangers teeth and gums.  Plaque causes tooth decay and gum disease.

Posterior – Back

Preventive Treatment Orthodontic treatment to prevent or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion (bad bite).

Removable Appliance – An orthodontic appliance that can be removed from the mouth by the patient.  Removable appliances are used to move teeth, align jaws and to keep teeth in their new positions when the braces are removed (retainers).

Retainer – A fixed or removable appliance worn after braces are removed.  A removable retainer attaches to your upper and/or lower teeth and holds them in their finished positions.

Rubber Bands – During certain stages of treatment, small elastics or rubber bands are worn to provide individual tooth movement or jaw alignment.

Safety Strap – The safety strap prevents the facebow of the headgear from coming loose and causing injury.

Separators – An elastic o-ring or small wire loop placed between the teeth to create space for placement of bands.  Separators are usually placed between the teeth a week before bands are scheduled to be cemented to the teeth.

Space Maintainer – A fixed appliance used to hold space for an unerupted permanent tooth after a primary (baby) tooth has been lost prematurely, due to accident or decay.

Supernumerary Teeth – A genetic occurrence in which there are more teeth than the usual number.  These teeth can be malformed or erupt in abnormally.

Tongue Thrust – An individual’s tongue pushes against the teeth when swallowing.  Forces generated by the tongue can move the teeth and bone and may lead to an anterior or posterior open bite.

Wax – Wax is placed on the brackets or archwires to prevent them from irritating the lips or cheeks.

Wires – Also known as archwires, they are held in the brackets using small elastic o-rings or stainless steel wire ligatures.  Wires are used to move the teeth.